Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are top of a global league table of university reputation— in a top 100 26 by U.S. institutions.
Cambridge and Oxford make the top 10—but other U.K. universities have 27 , while Asian institutions have risen.
The rankings are based on the 28 of 17,000 academics. This list is an attempt to quantify the elusive but important quality of 29 in higher education—with its findings 30 the opinions of academics around the world.
The first such ranking by the Times Higher Education magazine, published last year, had the same top five as this year—with the two Boston-based 31 , Harvard and MIT, in first and second place.
Cambridge was once again the highest ranking U.K. university in third place, 32 Stanford and University of California, Berkeley. But Phil Baty, editor of the Times Higher Education rankings, says there is an 33 picture of U.K. universities downwards—with fewer in the top 100 and a 34 for others including Imperial College London and University College London. “Our global reputation as the home of outstanding universities has been hit,” he said.
Reflecting the rise of Asian countries as the new education superpowers, there is an increasing presence for countries such as People’s Republic of China, Japan, Singapore and South Korea.
35 its size and population, Switzerland is also seen as performing well, with three universities in the world’s top 100 universities.
Such rankings published by the Times Higher Education magazine do not have an official status, but they have become an increasingly significant part of how universities market themselves to students, particularly as higher education has become more globalized.
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Section B (原快速阅读理解调整为长篇阅读理解，篇章长度和难度不变。篇章后附有10个句子，每句一题。每句所含的信息出自篇章的某一段落，要求考生找出与每句所含信息相匹配的段落。)
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.
You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
How Marketers Target Kids
[ A] Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power, they influence their parents# buying decisions and they are the adult consumers of the future. Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade, increasing from a mere $100 million in 1990 to more than $2 billion in 2000.
[B ] Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size, dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income. As well, guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. Here are some of the strategies marketers employ to target kids:
[C ] Today’s kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations, so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. “Pester power” refers to children’s ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power, because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be.
[D] According to the 2001 marketing industry book Kidfluence, pestering or nagging can be divided into two categories—“persistence” and “importance”. Persistence nagging (a plea, that is repeated over and over again) is not as effective as the more sophisticated “importance nagging”. This latter method appeals to parents’ desire to provide the best for their children, and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids.
The Marriage of Psychology and Marketing
[E] To effectively market to children, advertisers need to know what makes kids tick. With the help of well-paid researchers and psychologists, advertisers now have access to in-depth knowledge about children’s
developmental, emotional and social needs at different ages. Using research that analyzes children’s behaviour, fantasy lives, art work, even their dreams, companies are able to craft sophisticated marketing strategies to reach young people.
The issue of using child psychologists to help marketers target kids gained widespread public attention in 1999, when a group of U.S. mental health professionals issued a public letter to the American Psychological Association (APA) urging them to declare the practice unethical. The APA is currently studying the issue.
Building Brand Name Loyalty
[G] Canadian author Naomi Klein tracks the birth of “brand” marketing in her 2000 book No Logo. According to Klein, the mid-1980s saw the birth of a new kind of corporation—Nike, Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger, to name a few—which changed their primary corporate focus from producing products to creating an image for their brand name. By moving their manufacturing operations to countries with cheap labour, they freed up money to create their powerful marketing messages. It has been a tremendously profitable formula, and has led to the creation of some of the most wealthy and powerful multi-national corporations the world has seen.
[H] Marketers plant the seeds of brand recognition in very young children, in the hopes that the seeds will grow into lifetime relationships. According to the Center for a New American Dream, babies as young as six months of age can form mental images of corporate logos and mascots. Brand loyalties can be established as early as age two, and by the time children head off to school most can recognize hundreds of brand logos. While fast food, toy and clothing companies have been cultivating brand recognition in children for years, adult-oriented businesses such as banks and automakers are now getting in on the act.
Buzz or Street Marketing
[I] The challenge for marketers is to cut through the intense advertising clutter (杂乱)in young people’s lives. Many companies are using “buzz marketing” —a new twist on the tried-and-true “word of mouth” method. The idea is to find the coolest kids in a community and have them use or wear your product in order to create a buzz around it. Buzz, or “street marketing”, as it’s also called, can help a company to successfully connect with the elusive (难找的)teen market by using trendsetters to give them products “cool” status.
[J] Buzz marketing is particularly well-suited to the Internet, where young “Net promoters” use chat rooms and blogs to spread the word about music, clothes and other products among unsuspecting users.
Commercialization in Education
[ K] School used to be a place where children were protected from the advertising and consumer messages that permeated their world—but not anymore. Budget shortfalls (亏空，差额)are forcing school boards to allow corporations access to students in exchange for badly needed cash, computers and educational materials.
[L] Corporations realize the power of the school environment for promoting their name and products. A school setting delivers a captive youth audience and implies the endorsement of teachers and the educational system. Marketers are eagerly exploiting this medium in a number of ways, including: 1) sponsored educational materials; 2) supplying schools with technology in exchange for high company visibility; 3) advertising posted in classrooms, school buses, on computers in exchange for funds; 4) contests and incentive programs: for example, the Pizza Hut reading incentives program in which children receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal; 5) sponsoring school events.
[M ] The Internet is an extremely desirable medium for marketers wanting to target children. It’s part of youth culture.?
This generation of young people is growing up with the Internet as a daily and routine part of their lives. Kids are often online alone, without parental supervision. Unlike broadcasting media, which have codes regarding advertising to kids, the Internet is unregulated. Sophisticated technologies make it easy to collect information from young people for marketing research, and to target individual children with personalized advertising.
Marketing Adult Entertainment to Kids
[N] Children are often aware of and want to see entertainment meant for older audiences because it is actively marketed to them. In a report released in 2000, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) revealed how the movie, music and video games industries routinely market violent entertainment to young children.
[O ] The FTC studied 44 films rated “Restricted”, and discovered that 80 per cent were targeted to children under 17. Marketing plans included TV commercials run during hours when young viewers were most likely to be watching. The FTC report also highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children. Mature rated video games are advertised in youth magazines; and toys based on “Restricted” movies and M-rated video games are marketed to children as young as four.
46. Guilt can affect parents" spending decisions because they don’t have enough time for their kids.
47. The Center for a New American Dream pointed out that brand loyalties could be formed as early as age two.
48. School boards allow corporations to access to students because they need money and educational materials badly.
49. The FTC report highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children.
50. For this generation of young people, the Internet is a daily and routine part of their lives.
51. According to Kidfluence, “persistence nagging” is less effective than the more sophisticated “importance nagging”.
52. According to a report released by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the movie, music and video games industries usually market violent entertainment to young children.
53. Buzz marketing is well-suited to the Internet because the interactive environment can spread messages effectively.
54. A group of U.S. mental health professionals think that it is unethical to use child psychologists to help marketers target kids.
55. According to the Pizza Hut reading incentives program, children will receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal.
Part Ⅳ Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
中医(Traditional Chinese Medicine)是中华文化不可分割的一部分，为振兴华夏做出了巨大的贡献。如今， 中医和西医(western medicine)在中国的医疗保健领域并驾齐驱。中医以其独特的诊断手法、系统的治疗方式 和丰富的典籍材料，备受世界瞩目。中国的中医事业由国家中医药管理局(State Administration of TCM and Pharmacology)负责。现在国家巳经出台了管理中医的政策、法令和法规，引导并促进这个新兴产业的研究和 开发。在定义上，中医是指导中国传统医药理论和实践的一种医学，它包括中医疗法、中草药(herbalogy)、针 灸(acupuncture )、推拿(massage)和气功(Qigong)。
Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension
26. dominated (被)控制，(受)支配
28. perceptions 看法，认识
29. reputation 声誉，名誉
30. based on以…为基础，基于
31. institutions 机构
32. followed by随后是，接着是
Relative to 相对于
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
键词guilt和parents’ spending decisions。文章段落中，论及内疚感和影响父母购买决定的内容在[B]段出现，该 段第二句提到，内疚感能够影响父母做出的消费决定，忙碌的父母希望用购买的东西来弥补自己没有足够 的时间陪孩子。由此可知，题干对原文进行了同义改写，故答案为[B]。题干中的affect与原文中的play a role in对应。
47. [H]。题干意为，新美国梦中心指出，孩子早在两岁的时候就可以形成品牌忠诚度。注意抓住题干中的关键词 the Center for a New American Dream, brand loyalties 和 age two。文章段落中，提到新美国梦中心的内容在[H] 段出现，该段第三句提到，根据新美国梦中心所说，早在两岁的时候就可以建立品牌忠诚度，而等到开始上 学的时候，大多数孩子都可以认识几百个品牌标识。由此可知，题干是对原文的同义转述，故答案为[H]。
48. [K]。题干意为，教育委员会允许企业接近学生是因为他们急需资金和教学材料。注意抓住题干中的关键 词school boards。文章段落中，提到教育委员会的内容在[K]段出现，该段第二句中提到，预算亏空迫使教 育委员会允许企业进入校园，以此换取学校急需的资金、计算机和教学材料。题干对原文内容做了概述， 故答案为[K]。
49. [O]。题干意为，联邦贸易委员会的报告强调了一个事实，即以成人娱乐中各个角色为原型的玩具经常被 推销给年幼的孩子。注意抓住题干中的关键词FTC report和highlighted the fact。文章段落中，提到联邦贸易 委员会(FTC)有[N]和两段，但结合题干中的highlighted the fact可知相关内容在段，该段第三句提 到，联邦贸易委员会的报告还强调了 一个事实，即基于成人娱乐中角色的玩具经常被推销给年幼的孩子， 题干与原文意思一致，故答案为。
50. [M]。题干意为，对于这一代年轻人来说，互联网是他们日常生活的一部分。注意抓住题干中的关键词this generation of young people和Internet。文章段落中，提到这一代年轻人和互联网关系的内容在[M]段，该段 第三句提到，互联网伴随着这一代年轻人长大，互联网是他们日常生活的一部分。由此可知，题干是对原 文内容的同义转述，故答案为[M]。
51. [D]。题干意为，根据《儿童影响力》这本书所说，“坚持纠缠”不如更圆滑的“重要性纠缠”有效。注意抓住题 干中的关键词!persistence nagging, effective和importance nagging。文章段落中，提到《儿童影响 力》这本书是在[D]段，该段第二句提到，“坚持纠缠”就是一再地恳求)不如更圆滑的“重要性纠缠”有效。 由此可知，题干是对原文的同义转述，故答案为[D]。题干中的less effective than与原文中的not as effective as对应。
52. [N]。题干意为，依据美国联邦贸易委员会的一份报告，电影、音乐和电子游戏业经常向年幼的儿童推销暴 力娱乐。注意抓住题干中的关键词a report released by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission和movie, music and video games industries。文章段落中，提到美国联邦贸易委员会的报告和电影等行业的内容在[N]段，该段第 二句中提到，美国联邦贸易委员会2000年发表的一份报告中披露了电影、音乐和电子游戏业是如何习惯性 地向年幼的儿童推销暴力娱乐的，由此可知，题干对原文内容进行了同义改写，故答案为[N]。
53. [J]。题干意为，口碑营销很适合互联网，因为其互动的环境可以让信息有效传播。注意抓住题干中的关键 词buzz marketing和well-suited to the Internet。文章段落中，论及口碑营销和互联网关系的内容在[J ]段出 现，该段提到，口碑营销很适合互联网，网上的年轻“网络推销员”利用聊天室和博客在毫无戒备心的用户 中传播有关音乐、服饰和其他产品的信息。由此可知，题干对原文进行了同义转述，故答案为[J]。
54. [F]。题干意为，一个美国心理健康专家小组认为，利用儿童心理专家来帮助市场营销人员定位儿童需求 是不道德的。注意抓住题干中的关键词U.S. mental health professionals，unethical和psychologists。文章段落 中，提到美国心理健康专家小组的内容在[F]段出现，该段第一句提到，一个美国心理健康专家小组发表 了一封给美国心理学会(APA)的公开信，要求他们宣布那种让儿童心理学家帮助市场营销人员定位儿童 需求的做法是不道德的。题干与原文相符，故答案为[F]。
55. [L]。题干意为，根据必胜客的读书奖励计划，完成每月阅读目标的孩子可以获得免费比萨券。注意抓住题 干中的关键词Pizza Hut和monthly reading goal。文章段落中，提到必胜客及免费比萨的内容出现在[L]段，
Part Ⅳ Translation
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an integral part of Chinese culture. It has made great contributions to the prosperity of China. Today both TCM and western medicine are being used in providing medical and health services in China. TCM, with its unique diagnostic methods, systematic approach, abundant historical literature and materials, has attracted a lot of attention from the international community. In China, TCM is under the administration of State Administration of TCM and Pharmacology. National strategies, laws and regulations governing TCM are now in place to guide and promote the research and development in this promising industry. TCM is defined as a medical science governing the theory and practice of traditional Chinese medicine. It includes Chinese medication, herbalogy, acupuncture, massage and Qigong.
1.不可分割的一部分：可译为an integral part。
2.为振兴华夏做出了巨大的贲献：可译为has made great contributions to the prosperity of China，其中“华夏”： 即“中国”或“中华”，可直接译为China; “振兴”此处翻译成了名词形式prosperity,还可译为revitalization;“做出了 巨大的贡献”可译为 has made great contributions。
3.并驾齐驱：此处指两者(中医和西医)都得以应用，可简单地翻译为both are being used。
4.独特的诊断手法、系统的治疗方式和丰富的典籍材料：三个并列的名词短语，可分别译为unique ： I diagnostic methods, systematic approach和abundant historical literature and materials; “典籍材料”可理解为历史文献资料，翻译为historical literature and materials。
5.引导并促进这一新兴产业的研究和开发：“引导”译为guide; “促进”可译为promote，还可译为facilitate或further; “新兴产业，，可译为promising industry,还可译为new industry或emerging industry。