Part ⅡReading Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
One pertinent question in the wake of the earthquake near Aceh (亚齐省) and the tsunami (海啸) it generated is how much notice of an approaching wave can be given to vulnerable people without the risk of crying “wolf” too often. Earthquakes themselves are unpredictable, and likely to remain so. But detecting them when they happen is a routine technology. That was not the problem in this case, which was observed by monitoring stations all over the world. Unfortunately for the forecasters, although any powerful submarine earthquake brings the risk of a dangerous tsunami, not all such earthquakes actually result in a big wave, and false alarms cost money and breed cynicism.
On top of that, most “tsunamigenic” earthquakes, which are caused when the processes of plate tectonics force heavy, oceanic crustal rock below lighter, continental rock to create a deep trench at the bottom of the sea, occur in the Pacific, which is almost surrounded by such trenches. In the Indian Ocean, deep trenches are confined to the southern coast of Indonesia, and tsunamis are rare. Since most of the countries affected by this tsunami are poor, or middleincome at best, and monitoring costs money, this might suggest that a fatalistic approach to the question is reasonable. But American and Japanese experience suggests that effective monitoring need not be that expensive.
These two countries have networks of seabed pressuredetectors that can monitor tsunamis and indicate whether and where evacuation is necessarydata they share with their Pacific neighbours. A system of seven detectors, run from Hawaii, cost about $18m to develop, and the experience gained doing so means a similar system might now be had for as little as $2m. So, to the sound of stable doors being bolted firmly shut, politicians in SouthEast Asia and Australia are proposing one for the Indian Ocean.
Even if you have an effective detection system, though, it is useless if you cannot evacuate a threatened area. Here, speed is of the essence. Computer modelling can help show which areas are likely to be safest, but common sense is often the best guiderun like the wind, away from the sea. Evacuation warnings, too, should be easy to give as long as people are awake. Radios are ubiquitous, even in most poor places. It is just a matter of having systems in place to tell the radio stations to tell people to run. The problem was that no one did.
21. An important question raised after the Tsunami is that .
A) how to help those helpless people
B) how to detect the happening of tsunami
C) how to predict tsunamigenic earthquakes
D) how people should be cautiously warned
22. To the forecasters, the troublesome problem is .
A) it’s hard to tell disastrous submarine earthquake
B) people don’t take much notice of their warning
C) tsunamis are rare
D) where to get money for the false alarms
23. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A) Big waves depend on the intensity of earthquake.
B) Most earthquakes that cause tsunamis happen in the Pacific.
C) Tsunamis often occur along the coast of Indonesia.
D) Trenches at the bottom of the sea create tsunamis.
24. To the countries in SouthEast Asia, building a tsunami monitoring system .
A) is what they can not affordB) is not a practical solution
C) won’t cost a lot of moneyD) is effective but expensive
25. It is implied in the last paragraph that .
A) people should be taught how to escape the tsunami
B) a sound detection system could have saved the disaster
C) radio stations neglected their responsibilities
D) the heavy loss in the SouthEast tsunami could have been less
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Ever since Darwin’s theory of evolution, biologists have assumed that environments teeming with complex forms of life served as the nurseries of evolution. But two recent papers in Science magazine have turned that notion on its head. Last month some biologists reported that in the ocean it is the relatively barren areas that serve as “evolutionary crucibles(熔炉),” not regions with great diversity of species. Other researchers announced this summer that the Arctic, not the rain forest, spawned many plants and animals that later migrated to North America. Says John Sepkoski of the University of Chicago, “Harsh environments may be producing the major changes in the history of life.”
These “changes” do not result merely in a longer tail or a bigger claw for an existing species but, rather, in dramatic leaps up the evolutionary ladder—a rare innovation that comes along once in a million years. In the Arctic, reports Leo Hickey of Yale University, the innovations ran to forms never before seen on earth. By dating fossils from many geologic layers, he concluded that large grazing animals first appeared in the Arctic and migrated to temperate places a couple of million years or so later. Among plants, species of redwood and birch originated in polar regions some 18 millions years before they showed up in the south. Examining fossils as old as 570 million years, Chicago’s Sepkoski found that shell-less, soft-bodied creatures were suddenly replaced by trilobites（三叶虫）, then by the more advanced clam-like animals. These changes, he notes, “first become common near shore.” That surprised him—an environment with as few species as exist in the near shore, and with such a poor record of producing new species, seems an unlikely place for biological innovation. But when Jablonski dated fossils of 100 million years ago, he found that during this era, too, the near shore spawned biological breakthroughs—more sophisticated sea creatures that move and find food in ocean sediments instead of passively filtering whatever floats by.
The findings are too new to apply to human evolution, but at first glance they seem to fit the facts. Anthropologists believe that our ancestors became fully human only after they left their secure life in the trees for the harsh world of savanna(plain without trees). There, the demanding conditions triggered that most human of traits, the large brain, and the most profound evolutionary step of all was taken.
26. Two recent papers in Science magazine claim to have found evidence which contradicts the traditional notion that .
A) relatively harsh environments are the nurseries of evolution
B) evolution occurred in regions with biological diversity
C) new forms of life come into being in near-shore areas
D) species of birch and redwood originated in the south
27. According to Leo Hickey of Yale University, which of the following may have spawned more advanced species of land animals?
A) The barren ocean floor.B) The Arctic.
C) The rain forest.D) Temperate Zones.
28. The word “innovations” in the second paragraph means .
A) new theoryB) new phenomenonC) changesD) new inventions
29. How would anthropologists take the new findings?
A) They would look at them dubiously.
B) They would eagerly apply them to the study of human evolution.
C) They would challenge them, though at first glance they tend to look at them favorably.
D) They would most probably think the new findings fit well into their theory.
30. Which of the following may be an appropriate title of the passage?
A) Darwin’s Theory Modified.B) How Animals Evolve.
C) Evolution in Hard Places.D) Where Did Large Sea Animals Originate.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
That question “why women live longer than men” can be answered at two levels. An evolutionary biologist would tell you that it is because women get evolutionary bonus points from living long enough to help bring up the grandchildren. Men, by contrast, wear themselves out competing for the right to procreate in the first place. That is probably true, but not much help to the medical profession. However, a group of researchers at John Moores University has just come up with a medically useful answer. It is that while 70-year-old men have the hearts of 70-year-olds, those of their female peers resemble the hearts of 20-year-olds.
David Goldspink and his colleagues looked at 250 volunteers aged between 18 and 80 over two years. All the volunteers were healthy but physically inactive. The team’s principal finding was that the power of the male heart falls by 20-25% between the ages of 18 and 70, while that of the female heart remains undiminished.
They found that between the ages of 20 and 70, men lose 1/3 of the contractile muscle cells in the walls of their hearts. Over the same period, women lose hardly any. There is a strong link between the number of these cells and the function of the heart. What remains a mystery is why men lose these cells and women do not.
A previous theory of why women outlive men suggested that the female sex hormone, oestrogen, could have a protective effect on the heart. But Dr. Goldspink dismisses this idea, saying that there is no discernible dropoff in female heart function after menopause （更年期）, when oestrogen （雌激素） levels decrease dramatically. However, oestrogen does have a beneficial effect on blood vessels. The study found that blood flow to the muscles and skin of the limbs decreases with age in both sexes. The changes in the structure of the blood vessels occur earlier in men, but women catch up soon after menopause.
It’s not all bad news for men, though. In a related study, the team found that the hearts of veteran male athletes were as powerful as those of inactive 20yearold male undergraduates. But can men really recover lost heart function after a lifetime of inactivity and poor diet? Is it ever too late to start exercising? “I think the answer is no,” says Dr. Goldspink. “The health benefits to be gained from sensible exercise are to be recommended, regardless of age.” So if you are male and getting on, get on with it
31. A medical explanation as to the question why women live longer than men is that .
A) women have to live long enough to look after grandchildren
B) women’s hearts hardly grow old
C) women have more endurance than men
D) women are superior at evolutionary scale
32. The power of the female heart remains undiminished between the ages of 18 and 70 probably because .
A) women almost lose no contractile muscle cells in the walls of their hearts
B) women’s oestrogen has a protective effect on their heart
C) the size of their heart chambers is different from men’s
D) the thickness of the female heart’s muscular wall is different from men’s
33. Dr. Goldspink disagrees with the proposal that oestrogen could protect heart because .
A) female sex hormone can increase blood flow
B) female sex hormone can be beneficial to blood vessels
C) female heart function hardly drops when oestrogen levels fall greatly
D) female heart function improves though not obviously
34. What Dr. Goldspink says to men is that .
A) men can’t recover lost heart function in any way
B) men can recover lost heart function at any age
C) proper exercise does good to the heart at any age
D) it’s too late to start exercise when men are getting old
35. The best title of the passage is .
A) Exercise and the Health of Heart
B) The Difference between Men and Women
C) Heart and Health
D) Why Do Women Live Longer than Men
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
In the past, concern about a man-made warming of the earth has concentrated on the Arctic because the Antarctic is much colder and has a much thicker ice sheet. But the weather experts are now paying more attention to West Antarctic, which may be affected by only a few degrees of warming: in other words, by a warming on the scale that will possibly take place in the next fifty years from the burning of fuels.
Satellite pictures show that large areas of Antarctic ice are already disappearing. The evidence available suggests that a warming has taken place. This fits the theory that carbon dioxide warm the earth.
However, most of the fuel is burnt in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures seem to be falling. Scientists conclude, therefore, that up to now natural influences on the weather have exceeded those caused by man. The question is: which natural cause has most effect on the weather?
One possibility is the variable behavior of the sun. Astronomers at one research station have studied the hot spots and “cold” spots (that is, the relatively less hot spots) on the sun. As the sun rotated, every 27.5 days, it presents hotter or “colder” faces to the earth, and different aspects to different parts of the earth. This seems to have a considerable effect on the distribution of the earth’s atmospheric pressure, and consequently on wind circulation. The sun is also variable over a long term: its heat output goes up and down in cycles, the latest trend being downward.
Scientists are now finding mutual relations between models of solar-weather interactions and the actual climate over many thousands of years, including the last Ice Age. The problem is that the models are predicting that the world should be entering a new Ice Age and it is not. One way of solving this theoretical difficulty is to assume a delay of thousands of years while the solar effects overcome the inertia of the earth’s climate. If this is right, the warming effect of carbon dioxide might thus be serving as a useful counter-balance to the sun’s diminishing heat.
36. Experts used to believe that the chief reason for global warming is .
A) that most fuel is consumed in the northern hemisphere
B) human activities
C) natural influences and carbon dioxide
D) the solar energy
37. The article is written to illustrate .
A) the greenhouse effect
B) the solar effects on the earth
C) the models of solar-weather interactions
D) the factors responsible for the global climate
38. In spite of the greater consumption of fuel in the northern hemisphere, temperatures seem to be falling. This is .
A) possibly because of the melting of the ice caps in the poles
B) mainly because the levels of carbon dioxide are rising
C) partly due to the variations of the output of solar energy
D) because the sun presents its “colder” face to the earth
39. On the basis of the models, scientists are of the opinion that .
A) the climate of the world should be becoming cooler
B) it’ll take thousands of years for the inertia of the earth’s climate to take effect
C) the man-made warming effect helps to increase the solar effects
D) the new Ice Age will be delayed by the greenhouse effect
40. If the assumption about the delay of a new Ice Age is correct .
A) the increased levels of carbon dioxide will warm up the earth even more quickly
B) the greenhouse effect will work to the advantage of the earth
C) the best way to overcome the cooling effect will be to burn more fuels
D) ice will soon cover the northern hemisphere
Part ⅢVocabulary(20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best complete the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41. The history of life on earth has been a history of between living things and their surroundings.
A) interactionB) intersectionC) interferenceD) intercourse
42. There wasn’t enough time for a proper meal so we got a at a coffee shop.
A) snackB) snatchC) stackD)stitch
43. The police must have a search to search the room, otherwise it’ll be considered as an illegal intrusion.
A) pledgeB) guaranteeC) licenseD)warrant
44. The president inherited the economic problems from his .
A) successorB) predecessorC) precedentD)forerunner
45. For those who missed the opportunity for higher education, a major in the academic world now provides a second chance.
A) intrigueB) innovationC) inflationD) intuition
46. John is planning another travel abroad, yet his passport will at the end of this month.
A) terminateB) ceaseC) exceedD)expire
47. Jack found there wasn’t a good primary school in the , so he sent his son to a boarding school far away from home.
A) localityB) locationC) vicinityD)proximity
48. The Western custom of exchanging love on Valentine’s Day has been introduced into China and is becoming popular among young people.
A) tokensB) tollC) transitD)titles
49. It is at hat in such a prosperous country there should be so many homeless people.
A) paradiseB) pastimeC) paradoxD)parade
50. The ancient temple and pagoda are still there, but not in its .
A) humidityB) solidarityC) liabilityD) integrity
51. We are prepared to make some on minor details, but we will not compromise on fundamentals.
A) recessionB) concessionC) transmissionD) illusion
52. For a month, my wife and I have been the prospect of migrating to Europe.
A) fabricatingB) contrivingC) contemplatingD) facilitating
53. The views of the richest householders with those of the poorest and created a new consensus.
A) convergedB) correlatedC) disregardedD) disputed
54. These American soldiers were accused of treatment of prisoners of war.
A) bluntB) brutalC) briskD) bold
55. Expected noises are usually more than unexpected ones of the like magnitude.
A) vulnerableB) controllableC) cozyD) tolerable
56. It is only in the last decade that people have become aware of the threat to the quality of the environment by unrestricted industrial production.
A) posedB) propelledC) promptedD) provoked
57. The candidate won the election by a(n) number of votes.
A) essentialB) potentialC) substantialD) influential
58. When it began to rain hard, I took in the doorway of a building.
A) departureB) refugeC) screenD) coverage
59. The Prime Minister’s government was on the brink of collapse.
A) faintB) fragileC) furiousD) fatal
60. In his spare time, he liked to the Web looking for interesting web sites.
A) browseB) scrutinizeC) bruiseD) scramble
61. The decision will give renewed to the economic recovery of the country.
A) motiveB) aspirationC) impetusD) glitter
62. We a loss in the stock market by selling our shares early, before the stock fell.
A) divertedB) convertedC) invertedD) averted
63. The smartest man in the world is not to the depression that can accompany severe disabilities.
A) immuneB)sensitiveC) alertD) pertinent
64. Success that comes easily makes people more to failure when real challenges arise.
A) inevitableB)earnestC) timidD) prone
65. Thousands of workers on strike into the central square, demanding higher wages and better working conditions.
A) mobilizedB)surgedC) invadedD) soared
66. Thinking is any mental activity that helps us or solve a problem, make a decision, or fulfill a desire to understand.
A) duplicateB)simulateC) formulateD) verify
67. The country’s economic situation is as the statistics indicate that unemployment is increasing, prices rising and exports falling.
A) shrinkingB) lingeringC) deterioratingD) swelling
68. At Christmas, most families will set up their Christmas trees in a
place of their home and decorate them with fancy ornaments.
A) prominentB) dominantC) outstandingD) fantastic
69. He had studied Spanish, and had grown up in New York City—the most culturally place in America.
A) conspicuousB) diverseC) obscureD) dizzy
70. We need more people to their blood because there are so many injured men and women in the disaster.
A) injectB) denoteC) diagnoseD) donate
Part Ⅳ Error Correction（15 minutes）
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and be sure to put a (/) in the blank.
Every artist knows in his heart that he is saying something
to the public. Not only he want to say it well, but he wants it S1
to be something that has not said before. He hopes the public will S2
listen and understand—he wants to teach them, and he wants them
to learn from him.
What visual artists like painters want to teach are quite easy to make S3
out and difficult to explain, because painters translate their experiences S4
into shapes and colors, not words. They seem to feel that a certain
selection of shapes and colors, out of the countless millions impossible,
are exceptionally interesting for them and worth showing to us. S5
With their work we should never have noticed these particular shapes S6
and colors, or have felt the delight which it brought to the artist. S7
If one painter chooses to paint a deformed (畸形的)leg and a lake in
moonlight, each of which is directing our attention to a certain aspect of world. S8
Each painter is telling us something, shows us something,emphasizing somethingS9
—not all of which means that, consciously or unconsciously, he is S10
trying to teach us.
Part ⅤWriting(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: The Problem of Ageing Population in China. You should write at least 150 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese). You may also refer to the table below:
Trend of Population in China
Ageing Population (million) Proportion of Total Population
1990 97.19 8.8%
2003 136 10.2%
2020 230 15.6%
2050 410 27.4%
The Problem of Ageing Population in China
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
21. D22. A23. B24. C25. D26. A27. B28. C29. D30. C
31. B32. A33. C34. C35. D36. B37. D38. C39. A40. B
Part Ⅲ Vocabulary
41. A42. A43. D44. B45. B46. D47. C48. A49. C50. D
51. B52. C53. A54. B55. D56. A57. C58. B59. B60. A
61. C62. D63. A64. D65. B66. C67. C68. A69. B70. D
Part Ⅳ Error Correction
S1. only∧→doesS2.not ∧→beenS3. are →isS4. and→but
S5. are→isS6. With→WithoutS7. it→theyS8. ∧world→the
S9. shows→showingS10. not→\
Part Ⅴ Writing
The Problem of Ageing Population in China
The problem of ageing population is troubling many countries, especially the developed countries. China will soon be on the threshold of ageing population. Some cities, like Shanghai, Guangzhou, are already on the list. From the statistics given by the above table, China’s population will approach 410 million in 2050, with the growing population up to 27.4%, which means one in four people will be old citizens.
The ageing problem is bringing a series of social problems to China. First, many families in China consist of father, mother and one child. The only child has to care for the old parents in two families after he/she gets married. With the present inadequate social security system, this will present a grave problem to the old population. Second, the ageing process will inevitably result in the shortage of labor, which in turn will affect national economy.
What should we do to deal with the forthcoming problem? No doubt, building up the economic power of our country is the priority. Only when we have powerful economic foundation, can we care for the welfare of the huge ageing population. Besides, the only—child policy should be adjusted at a proper stage so as to keep a sensible percentage of the youth. In this way, the problem of ageing population can be relieved to some extent.