Part I Writing (30 minutes)
The Way to Success
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Google’s Plan for World’s Biggest Online Library: Philanthropy Or Act of Piracy?
In recent years, teams of workers dispatched by Google have been working hard to make digital copies of books. So far, Google has scanned more than 10 million titles from libraries in America and Europe—including haof a million volumes held by the Bodleian in Oxford. The exact method it uses it uses is unclear; the company does not allow outsiders to observe the process.
Why is Google undertaking such a venture? Why is it even interested in all those out-of-print library books, most of which have been gathering dust on forgotten shelves for decades? The company claims its motives are essentially public-spirited. Its overall mission, after all, is to “organise the world’s information”, so it would be odd if that information did not include books.
The company likes to present itself as having lofty aspirations. “This really isn’t about making money. We are doing this for the good of society.” As Santiago de la Mora, head of Google Bools for Europe, puts it: “By making it possible to search the millions of books that exist today, we hope to expand the frontiers of human knowledge.”
Dan Clancy, the chief architect of Google Books, does seem genuine in his conviction that this is primarily a philanthropic（慈善的）exercise. “Google’s core business is search and find, so obviously what helps improve Google’s search enging is good for Google,” he says. “But we have never built a spreadsheet（电子数据表）outlining the financial benefits of this, and I have never had to justify the amount I am spending to the company’s founders.”
It is easy, talking to Clancy and his colleagues, to be swept along by their missionary passion. But Google’s book-scanning project is proving controversial. Several opponents have recently emerged, ranging from rival tech giants such as Microsoft and Amazon to small bodies representing authors and publishers across the world. In broad terms, these opponents have levelled two sets of criticisms at Google.
First, they have questioned whether the primary responsibility for digitally archiving the world’s books should be allowed to fall to a commercial company. In a recent essay in the New York Review of Books, Robert Darnton, the head of Harvard University’s library, argued that because such books are a common resource---the possession of us all---only public, not-for-profit bodies should be given the power to control them.
The second related criticism is that Google’s scanning of books is actually illegal. This allegation has led to Google becoming mired in（陷入）a legal battle whose scope and complexity makes the Jarndyce and Jarndyce case in Charles Dickens’ Bleak House look straightforward.
At its centre, however, is one simple issue: that of copyright. The inconvenient fact about most books, to which Google has arguably paid insufficient attention, is that they are protected by copyright. Copyright laws differ from country to country, but in general protection extends for the duration of an author’s life and for a substantial period afterwards, thus allowing the author’s heirs to benefit. (In Britain and America, this post-death period is 70 years.) This means, of course, that almost all of the books published in the 20th century are still under copyright---and the last century saw more books published than in all previous centuries combined. Of the roughly 40 million books in US libraries, for example, an cstimated 32 million are in copyright. Of these, some 27 million are out of print.
Outside the US, Google has made sure only to scan books that are out of copyright and thus in the “public domain” (works such as the Bodleian’s first edition of Middlemarch, which anyone can read for free on Google Books Search).
But, within the US, the company has scanned both in-copyright and out-of-copyright works. In its defence, Google points out that it displays only small segments of books that are in copyright---arguing that such displays are “fair use”. But crtics allege that by making eletronic copies of these books without first seeking the permission of copyright holders, Google has committed piracy.
“The key principle of copyright law has always been that works can be copied only once authors have expressly given their permission,” says Piers Blofeld, of the Sheil Land literary agency in London. “Google has reversed this—it has simply copied all these works without bothering to ask.”
In 2005, the Authors Guild of America, together with a group of US publishers, launched a class action suit（集团诉讼）against Google that, after more than two years of negotiation, ended with an announcement last October that Google and the claimants had reached an out-of-court settlement. The full details are complicated—the text alone runs to 385 pages—and trying to summarise it is no easy task. “Part of the problem is that it is basically incomprehensible,” says Blofeld, one of the settlement’s most vocal British critics.
Broadly, the deal provides a mechanism for Google to compensate authors and publishers whose rights it has breached (including giving them a share of any future revenue it generates from their works). In exchange for this, the rights holders agree not to sue Google in future.
This settlement hands Google the power—but only with the agreement of individual rights holders—to exploit its database of out-of-print books. It can include them in subscription deals sold to libraries or sell them individually under a consumer licence. It is these commercial proving the settlement’s most controversial aspect.
Critics point out that, by giving Google the right to commercially exploit its database, the settlement paves the way for a subtle shift in the company’s role from provider of information to seller. “Google’s business model has always been to provide information for free, and sell advertising on the basis of the traffic this generates,” points out James Grimmelmann, associate professor at New York Law School. Now, he says, because of the settlement’s provisions, Google could become a significant force in bookselling.
Interest in this aspect of the settlement has focused on “orphan” works, where there is no known copyright holder—these make up an estimated 5-10% of the books Google has scanned. Under the settlement, when no rights holders come forward and register their interest in a work, commercial control automatically reverts to Google. Google will be able to display up to 20% of orphan works for free, include them in its subscription deals to libraries and sell them to individual buyers under the consumer licence.
It is by no means certain that the settlement will be enacted（执行）--it is the subject of a fairness hearing in the US courts. But if it is enacted, Google will in effect be off the hook as far as copyright violations in the US are concerned. Many people are seriously concerned by this—and the company is likely to face challenges in other courts around the world.
No one knows the precise use Google will make of the intellectual property it has gained by scanning the world’s library books, and the truth, as Gleick, an American science writer and member of the Authors Guild, points out, is that the company probably doesn’t even know itself. But what is certain is that, in some way or other, Google’s entrance into digital bookselling will have a significant impact on the book world in the years to come.
1. Google claims its plan for the world’s biggest online library is _______ .
A) to save out-of-print books in libraries B) to serve the interest of the general public
C) to promote its core business of searching D) to encourage reading around the world
2. According to Santiago de la Mora, Google’s book-scanning project will _______ .
A) help the broad masses of readers B) revolutionise the entire book industry
C) broaden humanity’s intellectual horizons D) make full use of the power of its search engi
3. Opponents of Google Books believe that digitally archiving the world’s books should be controlled by ______ .
A) non-profit organisations B) multinational companies
C) the world’s leading libraries D) the world’s tech giants
4. Google has involved itself in a legal battle as it ignored _____ .
A) the copyright of the books it scanned B) the interest of traditional booksellers
C) the copyright of authors of out-of-print books D) the differences of in-print and out-of-print books
5. Google defends its scanning in-copyright books by saying that _______ .
A) it displays only a small part of their content
B) it is willing to compensate the copyright holders
C) making electronic copies of books is not a violation of copyright
D) the online display of in-copyright books is not for commercial use
6. What do we learn about the class action suit against Google?
A) It could lead to more aout-of-court settlements of such disputes
B) It ended in a victory for the Authors Guild of America
C) It failed to protect the interests of American publishers
D) It was settled after more than two years of negotiation
7. What remained controversial after the class action suit ended?
A) The compensation for copyright holders B) The change in Google’s business model
C) The commercial provisions of the settlement D) Google’s further exploitation of its database
8. While __________ , Google makes money by selling advertising
9. Books whose copyright holders are not known are called _________ .
10. Google’s entrance into digital bookselling will tremendously ____________ in the future.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 miuntes)
11. A) Prepare for the test after the wedding B) Listen to the recorded notes while driving
C) Review his notes once he arrives in Chicago D) Cancel the trip to prepare for the test
12. A) The man lacks confidence in playing the part B) The man hopes to change his role in the play
C) The woman will prompt the man during the show D) The woman will help the man remember the lines
13. A) A complicated surgical case B) Arranging a bed for a patient
C) Rescuing the woman’s uncle D) Preparations for an operation
14. A) He is interested in improving his editing skills B) He is too busy to accept more responsibility
C) He is eager to be nominated the new editor D) He is sure to do a better job than Simon
15. A) He has left his position in the government B) He has already reached the retirement age
C) He has been successfully elected Prime Minister D) He made a stupid decision at the cabinet meeting
16. A) The shuttle flight will be broadcast live worldwide
B) The man is excited at the news of the shuttle flight
C) This year’s shuttle mission is a big step in space exploration
D) The man is well informed about the space shuttle missions
17. A) At a suburban garage B) At an auto rescue center
C) At a car renting company D) At a mountain camp
18. A) He got his speakers fixed B) He listened to some serious music
C) He bought a stereo system D) He went shopping with the woman
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard
19. A) Selling products made for left-handers B) Printing labels for manufactured goods
C) Promoting products for manufacturers D) Providing aid to the disabled
20. A) The kitchenware in his shop is of unique design
B) Most of them are specially made for his shop
C) All of them are manufactured in his own plant
D) About half of them are unavailable on the marker
21. A) They have outlets throughout Britain B) They specialise in one product only
C) They run chain stores in central London D) They sell by mail order only
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard
22. A) It sponsors trade fairs B) It is engaged in product design
C) It publishes magazines D) It runs sales promotion campaigns
23. A) The woman’s company made last-minute changes
B) The ad specifications had not been given in detail
C) The woman’s company failed to make payments in time
D) Organising the promotion was really time-consuming
24. A) Run another four-week campaign B) Extend the campaign to next year
C) Cut the fee by half for this year D) Give her a 10 percent discount
25. A) Stop negotiating for the time being B) Improve their promotion plans
C) Reflect on their respective mistakes D) Calm down and make peace
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard
26. A) They are labeled pet animals by the researchers
B) They are looked after by animal-care organizations
C) They sacrifice their lives for the benefit of humans
D) They look spotlessly clean throughout their lives
27. A) They may breed out of control B) They may affect the results of experiments
C) They may cause damage to the environment D) They may behave abnormally
28. A) When they get too old B) When they become ill
C) When they are no longer useful D) When they become escapees
29. A) While holding a burial ceremony for a pet mouse, they were killing pest mice
B) While launching animal protection campaigns, they were trapping kichen mice
C) While calling for animal rights, they allowed their kids to keep pet animals
D) While advocating freedom for animals, they hept their pet mouse in a cage
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard
30. A) They are crazy about it B) They often find fault with it
C) They contribute most to it D) They take it for granted
31. A) Heat and light B) Economic prosperity
C) Tidal restlessness D) Historical continuity
32. A) They are adventurers from all over the world B) They have difficulty surviving
C) They find the city alien to them D) They lack knowledge of the culture of the city
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard
33. A) A documentary B) A murder mystery
C) A political debate D) A football game
34. A) It enhances family relationships B) It helps broaden one’s horizons
C) It is a sheer waste of time D) It is unhealthy for the viewers
35. A) He is not a man who can keep his promise B) He watches TV programs only selectively
C) He doesn’t like watching sports programs D) He can’t resist the temptation of TV either
In the past, one of the biggest disadvantages of machines has been their inability to work on a micro-scale. For example, doctors did not have devices allowing them to go inside the human body to (36) _____ health problems or to percorm (37) ______ surgery. Repair crews did not have a way of (38) ______ broken pipes located deep within a high-rise (39) ______ building. However, that’s about to change. Advances in computers and biophysics have started a microminiature（超微）(40) ______ that allows scientists to envision—and in some cases actualy build—microscopic machines. These devices promise to (41) _____ change the way we live and work.
Micromachines already are making an impact. At Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, research scientists have designed a 4-inch silicon chip that holds 700 tiny (42) _______ motors. At Lucas NovaSensor in Fremont, California, scientists have perfected the world’s first microscopic biood-pressure sensor. Threaded through a person’s blood (43) ______ , the sensor can provide biood pressure readings at the valve of the heart itself.
(44) ____________ . Auto manufacturers, for example, are trying to use tiny devices (45) _________ . Some futurists envision nanotechnology（纳米技术）also being used to explore the deep sea in small submarines, or even to launch finger-sized rockets packed with microminiature instruments.
There is an explosion of new ideas and applications. (46) _____________________ .
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage
Leadership is the most significant word in today’s competitive business environment because it directs the manager of a business to focus inward on their personal capabilities and style. Experts on leadership will quickly point out that “how things get done” influences the success of the outcomes and indicates a right way and a wrong way to do things. When a noted leader on the art of management, Peter Drucker, coined the phrase “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things,” he was seeking to clarify the distinctions he associates with the terms.
When Stephen Covey, founder and director of the Leadership Institute, explored leadership styles in the past decade, he focused on the habits of a great number of highly effective individuals. His Seven Habits of Highly Effective People became a popular bestseller very quickly. His ideas forced a reexamination of the early leadership paradigm（范例），which he observed centered on traits found in the character ethic and the personality cthic. The former ethic suggested success was founded on integrity, modesty, loyalty, courage, patience, and so forth. The personality ethic suggested it was one’s attitude, not behavior, that inspired success, and this ethic was founded on a belief of positive mental attitude. In contrast to each of these ideas, Covey advocates that leaders need to understand universal principles of effectiveness, and he highlights how vital it is for leaders to first personally manage themselvcs if they are to enjoy any hope of outstanding success in their work environments. To achieve a desired vision for your business, it is vital that you have a personal vision of where you are headed and what you value. Business leadership means that managers need to “put first things first,” which implies that before leading others, you need to be clear on your own values, abilities, and strengths and be seen as trustworthy.
47. To be good leaders, managers must pay close attention to their own ________ .
48. According to Peter Drucker, leaders should be good at _______ .
49. The personality ethic suggests that people are likely to succeed if they have _______ .
50. According to Stephen Covey, leaders who hope to achieve outstanding success need first of all to ________ .
51. Good leadership requires one to know one’s own strenghts and be able to win people’s _____ .
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage
What’s the one word of advice a well-meaning professional would give to a recent college graduate? China? India? Brazil? How about trade?
When the Comerce Department reported last week that the trade deficit in June approached $50 billion, it set off a new round of economic doomsaying. Imports, which soared to $200.3 billion in the month, are subtracted in the calculation of gross domestic product. The larger the trade deficit, the smaller the GDP. Should such imbalances continue, pessimists say, they could contribute to slower growth.
But there’s another way of looking at the trade data. Over the past two years, the figures on imports and exports seem not to signal a double-dip recession—a renewed decline in the broad level of economic activity in the United States—but an economic expansion.
The rising volume of trade—more goods and services shuttling in and out of the United States—is good news for many sectors. Companies engaged in shipping, trucking, rail freight, delivery, and logistics（物流）have all been reporting better than expected results. The rising numbers signify growing vitality in foreign markets—when we import more stuff, it puts more cash in the hands of people around the world, and US exports are rising because more foreigners have the ability to buy the things we produce and market. The rising tide of trade is also good news for people who work in trade-sensitive businesses, especially those that produce commodities for which global demand sets the price—agicultural goods, mining, metals,oil.
And while exports always seem to lag, US comppanies are becoming more involved in the global economy with each passing month. General Motors sells as many cars in China as in America each month. While that may not do much for imports, it does help GM’s balance sheet—and hence makes the jobs of US-based executives more stable.
One great challenge for the US economy is slack domestic consumer demad. Americans are paying down debt, saving more, and spending more carefully. That’s to be expected, given what we’ve been through. But there’s a bigger challenge. Can US-based businesses, large and small, figure out how to get a piece of growing global demand? Unless you want to pick up and move to India, or Brazil, or China, the best way to do that is through trade. It may seem obvious, but it’s no longer enough simply to do business with our friends and neighbors here at home.
Companies and individuals who don’t have a strategy to export more, or to get more involved in foreign markets, or to play a role in global trade, are shutting themselves out of the lion’s share of economic opportunity in our world.
52. How do pessimists interpret the US trade deficit in June?
A) It is the result of America’s growing focus on domestic market
B) It signifies a change in American economic structure
C) It could lead to slower growth of the national economy
D) It reflects Americans’ preference for imported goods
53. What does the author say about the trade data of the past two years?
A) It shows that US economy is slipping further into recession
B) It indicates that economic activities in the US have increased
C) It signals decreasing domestic demand for goods and services
D) It reflects the fluctuations in the international market
54. Who particularly benefit from the rising volume of trade?
A) Retailers dealing in foreign goods and services
B) People who have expertise in international trade
C) Producers of agricultural goods and raw materials
D) Consumers who favor imported goods and services
55. What is one of the challenges facing the American economy?
A) Competition from overseas B) People’s reluctance to spend
C) Decreasing productivity D) Slack trade activities
56. What is the author’s advice to US companies and individuals?
A) To increase their market share overseas
B) To move their companies to where labor is cheaper
C) To be alert to fluctuations in foreign markets
D) To import more cheap goods from developing countries
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage
A recurring criticism of the UK’s university sector is its perceived weakness in translating new knowledge into new products and services.
Recently, the UK National Stem Cell Network warned the UK could lose its place among the worid leaders in stem cell research unless adequate funding and legislation could be assured. We should take this concern seriously as universities are key in the national innovation system.
However, we do have to challenge the unthinking complaint that the sector does not do enough in taking ideas to market. The most recent comparative data on the performance of universities and research institutions in Australia, Canada, USA and UK shows that, from a relatively weak starting position, the UK now leads on many indicators of commercialisation activity.
When viewed at the national level, the policy interventions of the past decade have helped transform the peformance of UK universities. Evidence suggests the UK’s position is much stronger than in the recent past and is still showing improvement. But national data masks the very large variation in the performance of individual universities. The evidence shows that a large number of universities have fallen off the back of the pack, a few perform strongly and the rest chase the leaders.
This type of uneven distribution is not peculiar to the UK and is mirrored across other economies. In the UK, research is concentrated: less than 25% of universities receive 75% of the research funding. These same universities are also the institutions producing the greatest share of phD graduates, science citations, patents and licence income. The effect of policies generating ling-term resource concentration has also created a distinctive set of universities which are research-led and commercially active. It seems clear that the concentration of research and commercialisation work creates differences between universities.
The core objective for universities which are research-led must be to maximise the impact of their research efforts. These universities should be generating the widest range of social, economic and environmental benefits. In return for the scale of investment, they should share their expertise in order to build greater confidence in the sector.
Part of the economic recovery of the UK will be driven by the next generation of research commercialisation spilling out of our universities. There are three dozen universities in the UK which are actively engaged in advanced research training and commercialisation work.
If there was a greater coordination of technology transfer offices within regions and a simultaneous investment in the scale and functions of our graduate schools, universities could, and should, play a key role in positioning the UK for the next growth cycle.
57. What does the author think of UK universities in terms of commercialisation?
A) They have lost their leading position in many ways
B) They do not regard it as their responsibility
C) They fail to convert knowledge into money
D) They still have a place among the world leaders
58. What does the author say about the national data on UK universities’ performance in commercialisation?
A) It does not reflect the differences among universities
B) It masks the fatal weaknesses of government policy
C) It does not rank UK universities in a scientific way
D) It indicates their ineffective use of government resources
59. We can infer from Paragraph 5 that “policy interventions” (Line 1, Para. 4) refers to ______ .
A) fair distribution of funding for universities and research institutions
B) compulsory cooperation between universities and industries
C) concentration of resources in a limited number of universities
D) government aid to not-research-oriented universities
60. What does the author suggest research-led universities do?
A) Generously share their facilities with those short of funds
B) Fully utilise their research to benefit all sectors of society
C) Spread their influence among top research institutions
D) Publicise their research to win international recognition
61. How can the university sector play a key role in the UK’s economic growth?
A) By increasing the efficiency of technology transfer agencies
B) By establishing more regional technology transfer offices
C) By promoting technology transfer and graduate school education
D) By asking the government to invest in technology transfer research
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
If you know where to find a good plastic-free shampoo, can you tell Jeanne Haegele? Last September, the 28-year-old Chicago resident 62 to cut plastics out of her life. The marketing coordinator was concerned about 63 the chemicals coming out of some common types of plastic might be doing to her body. She was also worried about the damage all the plastic 64 was doing to the environment. So she 65 on her bike and rode to the nearest grocery store to see what she could find that didn’t 66 plastic. “I went in and 67 bought anything,” Haegele says. She did 68 some canned food and a carton（纸盒）of milk— 69 to discover later that both containers were 70 with plastic resin（树脂）. “Plastic,” she says, “just seemed like it was in everything.”
She’s right. Back in the 1960s, plastic was well 71 its way to becoming a staple of American life. The US produced 28 million tons of plastic waste in 2005—27 million tons of which 72 in landfills（垃圾填埋场）. Our food and water come 73 in plastic. It’s used in our phones and our computers, the cars we drive and the planes we ride in. But the 74 adaptable substance has its dark side. Environmentalists feel worried about the petroleum needed to make it. Parents worry about the possibility of 75 chemicals making their way from 76 plastic into children’s bloodstreams. Which means Haegele isn’t the only person trying to cut plastic out of her life—she isn’t 77 the only one blogging about this kind of 78 . But those who’ve tried know it’s 79 from easy to go plastic-free. “These things seem to be so common 80 it is practically impossible to avoid coming into 81 with them,” says Frederick vom Saal, a biologist at the University of Missouri.
62. A) removed B) retreated C) recovered D) resolved
63. A) why B) when C) who D) what
64. A) rubbish B) unit C) esence D) crust
65. A) hinged B) hopped C) dipped D) stretched
66. A) compose B) consist C) induce D) include
67. A) barely B) roughly C) nearly D) slightly
68. A) preserve B) purchase C)pursue D) prescribe
69. A) rather B) merely C) ever D) only
70. A) combined B) coupled C) lined D) probed
71. A) under B) by C) on D) over
72. A) put up B) ended up C) set up D) pulled up
73. A) adopted B) adapted C) trapped D) wrapped
74. A) remotely B) infinitely C) interactively D) resolutely
75. A) toxic B) attractive C) sensible D) absurd
76. A) family B) internal C) household D) civil
77. A) largely B) still C) hardly D) even
78. A) recreation B) diligence C) endeavor D) accomplishment
79. A) far B) little C) much D) well
80. A) while B) but C) that D) which
81. A) agreement B) which C) approach D) fashion
Part VI Translation (15 minutes)
82. You shouldn’t have run across the road without looking. You ________（也许会被车撞倒的）。
83. By no means ____________（他把自己当成专家）although he knows a lot about the field。
84. He doesn’t appreciate the sacrifice his friends have made for him, ____________（把他们所做的视作理所当然）。
85. Janet told me that she would rather her mother ____________（不干涉她的婚姻）。
86. To keep up with the expanding frontiers of scholarship, Edward Wilson found himself _____（经常上网查找信息）。